Using information and ideas from someone else means that you are required to credit where you found the material. In academic writing and publishing credit is given by using properly formatted citations. These citations are requires whenever you use written, oral, or audiovisual sources. Failing to cite can be considering plagiarism and is in violation of the UJ Academic Integrity Policy. To avoid any issues you should start by evaluating each source forĀ who, what, where, and when.



Who wrote or created the information?

  • Is there one or more authors?

  • Is there an editor or translator?

  • Is the creator an organization or government body?

Who distributed or published the information?



What type of material did the information come from?

  • Is it a book, journal article, website, etc.?

  • Was it an online source or print source?

  • Is it part of a book or the entire book?


  • Where was the information published?

  • Where did you find the information?



  • When was the information published or created?

  • When did you access the information?

Citations are formatted differently depending on which style of citations is used. However, the majority of citations will contain the same elements. Below is an example of how to format a print book using the three main citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago. For further information please consult the UJ Quick Guides and the official formatting guides found on





Please note that Chicago has two different formats: Author-Date & Notes & Bibliography.


Notes & Bibliography


The following are Quick Guides developed by Raugust Library to help you with your citations. These are meant to be helpful start to formatting citations. For full information please consult the official style guides available in the library Reference Collection.

If you need help with citations please contact the Reference and Instruction Librarian.


Please check with your instructor to determine which citation style is used in your course.


Style Guide:MLA Handbook, 8th Edition: REF808.027 M72, 2016

MLA Formatting and Style Guide: Purdue OWL

MLA Quick Guide (UJ Library)


Style Guide: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: REF808.06615 Am35p, 2010

APA Formatting and Style Guide: Purdue OWL

APA Quick Guide (UJ Library)


Style Guide: The Chicago Manual of Style: REF808.027 C432

Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide:

Chicago Quick Guide: Author-Date (UJ Library) Chicago Quick Guide: Notes & Bibliography (UJ Library)


Style Guide: AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors: FargoR119 .A533 2007

AMA Style: Purdue OWL

AMA Style Guide (UJ Library)