Search Icon
Apply for Free
Visit UJ
Apply for Free
Visit UJ

How to Cite

Using information and ideas from someone else means that you are required to credit where you found the material. In academic writing and publishing credit is given by using properly formatted citations. These citations are requires whenever you use written, oral, or audiovisual sources. Failing to cite can be considering plagiarism and is in violation of the UJ Academic Integrity Policy. To avoid any issues you should start by evaluating each source for who, what, where, and when.


Who wrote or created the information?

  • Is there one or more authors?
  • Is there an editor or translator?
  • Is the creator an organization or government body?

Who distributed or published the information?


What type of material did the information come from?

  • Is it a book, journal article, website, etc.?
  • Was it an online source or print source?
  • Is it part of a book or the entire book?


  • Where was the information published?
  • Where did you find the information?


  • When was the information published or created?
  • When did you access the information?

Citations are formatted differently depending on which style of citations is used. However, the majority of citations will contain the same elements. Below is an example of how to format a print book using the three main citation styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago. For further information please consult the UJ Quick Guides and the official formatting guides.

AMA Style Guide (UJ Library)

APA Quick Guide (UJ Library)


Please note that Chicago has two different formats: Author-Date & Notes & Bibliography.

Chicago Quick Guide: Author-Date (UJ Library)

Chicago Quick Guide: Notes & Bibliography (UJ Library)

MLA Quick Guide (UJ Library)

If you need help with citations please contact the Reference and Instruction Librarian.

Please check with your instructor to determine which citation style is used in your course.

Committed to helping you succeed — both in and out of the classroom.

    University of Jamestown Logo